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Overview

During and after World War II, the Allies sought to recover and restore the gold, foreign currency, art, cultural objects, and other wealth plundered by the Nazis. Yet despite a concerted effort by the war_s victors, there are large quantities of Nazi-looted assets that have never been found, including at least 100,000 works of art and an undetermined amount of non-monetary gold. Sheikdoms) and Yemen represent an area of great strategic interest to the U.S. The State Department central files document the controversial British presence and U.S. efforts to replace Britain as _protector_ in the Gulf region, and other historic issues. Among these are oil production and revenues, domestic unrest, threat of Arab nationalism. The records of compensation and reparation payments to Nazi victims mainly consist of requests by individuals to the State Department for help with receiving compensation from the Federal Republic of Germany (West). Part 3 covers U.S. State Department assistance to individuals seeking monetary payments or material redress from the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Materials in this collection date from 1942 to 1988 and include correspondence, court documents, memoranda, news articles, reports, meeting minutes, and legislation. The Nazi regime persecuted and killed millions of people in Germany and Nazi-occupied lands until the Allied victory in 1945. Besides imprisonment and physical torture in concentration camps, the suffering of Nazi victims included dispossession of assets and property. Shortly after the Second World War, occupation governments in Germany and Austria enacted compensation and restitution initiatives for the relief and rehabilitation of victims of National Socialist crimes. In 1949, the newly formed FRG made a high priority of reparations to Jewish victims of Nazi oppression and later codified its compensation efforts into three laws of the 1950s and 1960s. In 1953, the first law implemented the FRG's compensation program. The program's scope expanded with the enactment of a second law in 1956. The last Federal Compensation Law in 1965 increased the number of persons eligible for compensation and the amount of payment. A large group of documents in the collection pertains to claims from victims or their relatives for financial compensation or property restitution from the FRG government. In correspondence detailing acts of Nazi persecution, individuals sought to persuade the U.S. government to intercede with their requests for reparations from the FRG. With their assets confiscated during Nazi persecution, many victims were living under financial hardship for years after the war. Many claims include medical reports of individuals whose physical and mental health were permanently damaged during Nazi persecution.

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