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Examining the characteristics of health-related gaming interventions among congenital heart disease patients: A scoping review

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Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a condition present at birth that encompasses a number of diseases involving the heart (Oliver et al., 2017). It consists of defects that may compromise the functioning of the heart and can affect the interior lining of its walls, valves, arteries, and veins (Oliver et al., 2017). CHD manifests in a number of forms which can range from simple defects that can have minimal symptoms and are more easily treated when diagnosed (e.g., narrowed valve, hole in septum) to multifaceted defects that can have life altering complications and require complex treatment (e.g., improper location of vessels leading to and from the heart, multiple defects that influence how the heart develops) (Opic et al., 2015). Over the years, the diagnosis and treatment of CHD has significantly advanced, allowing individuals to live into adulthood (Heery, Sheehan, While, Coyne, 2015). Consequently, lifelong complications exist, leading to individuals requiring additional care throughout their lives. Their capacity to partake in employment is sometimes limited, as many of these individuals tend to be too sick to work, and thus are more likely to be on permanent disability. Furthermore, the reoccurrence and/or exacerbation of symptoms results in increased use of the health care system, which often times is significantly higher than that of the average individual (Masoudi et al., 2017). Accordingly, the combination of the onset and/or aggravation of symptoms and limited work connections has led to decrease social interactions among these individuals.

Age and context appropriate interventions should be designed for the adult cohort with congenital heart disease since current resources are not optimal. Resources to support persons with CHD are limited and consist primarily of patient education booklets (Triedman & Newburger, 2016). However, these resources fail to provide opportunities for social and/or group interaction. Health related gaming interventions are an...